Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases characterized by damage to the optic nerve, often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which can lead to irreversible vision loss and blindness if left untreated. It is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Glaucoma typically develops gradually and without noticeable symptoms in its early stages, earning it the nickname "the silent thief of sight."

Types of Glaucoma:
  • Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG): The most common form of glaucoma, characterized by gradual optic nerve damage and a wide, open angle between the iris and cornea.
  • Angle-Closure Glaucoma: Also known as closed-angle or narrow-angle glaucoma, this type occurs when the drainage angle between the iris and cornea becomes blocked, leading to a sudden increase in IOP and acute symptoms.
  • Normal-Tension Glaucoma: In this type, optic nerve damage occurs despite normal IOP levels. The exact cause is not fully understood.
  • Secondary Glaucoma: Develops as a result of another eye condition or medical condition, such as trauma, eye surgery, inflammation, or use of certain medications.

In the early stages, glaucoma often has no noticeable symptoms.
As the disease progresses, symptoms may include:

  • Gradual loss of peripheral (side) vision
  • Tunnel vision in advanced stages
  • Blurred vision
  • Halos around lights
  • Severe eye pain or headache (in cases of acute angle-closure glaucoma)

Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease characterized by optic nerve damage and elevated intraocular pressure, leading to irreversible vision loss if left untreated. Early detection through regular eye examinations and prompt treatment are crucial for preserving vision and preventing further damage. Individuals at higher risk, including those with a family history of glaucoma or certain medical conditions, should undergo regular eye screenings to detect glaucoma in its early stages. If you have any concerns about your eye health or risk of glaucoma, consult an eye care professional for evaluation and appropriate management.